하이에크는 문화적 집단 선택(cultural group selection)에 의존하고 있다.

 

The extended order did not of course arise all at once; the process lasted longer and produced a greater variety of forms than its eventual development into a world-wide civilisation might suggest (taking perhaps hundreds of thousands of years rather than five or six thousand); and the market order is comparatively late. The various structures, traditions, institutions and other components of this order arose gradually as variations of habitual modes of conduct were selected. Such new rules would spread not because men understood that they were more effective, or could calculate that they would lead to expansion, but simply because they enabled those groups practising them to procreate more successfully and to include outsiders.

(The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism, 16, http://www.libertarianismo.org/livros/fahtfc.pdf)

 

The earliest clear statement of such matters known to me was made by A. M. Carr-Saunders who wrote that `man and groups are naturally selected on account of the customs they practice just as they are selected on account of their mental and physical characters. Those groups practising the most advantageous customs will have an advantage in the constant struggle between adjacent groups over those that practise less advantageous customs' (1922:223, 302). Carr-Saunders, however, stressed the capacity to restrict rather than to increase population. For more recent studies see Alland (1967); Farb (1968:13); Simpson, who described culture, as opposed to biology, as `the more powerful means of adaptation' (in B. Campbell, 1 972); Popper, who argued that `cultural evolution continues genetic evolution by other means' (Popper and Eccles, 1977:48); and Durham (in Chagnon and Irons, 1979:19), who emphasises the effect of particular customs and attributes in enhancing human reproduction.

(The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism, 16, http://www.libertarianismo.org/livros/fahtfc.pdf)

 

어쩌다 보니 어떤 집단은 더 자본주의적인 질서를 받아들이게 되고 어떤 집단은 그렇지 못하게 된다. 문화적 집단 선택의 결과 경쟁력이 더 강한 집단 즉 더 자본주의적인 집단이 승리하게 된다. 이런 진화가 누적되어 결국 현재와 같이 자본주의가 전세계를 정복하게 되었다는 이야기다.

 

 

 

문화적 집단 선택에는 밈(meme, 모방자) 이론의 요소도 있고 집단 선택의 요소도 있다. 그리고 많은 진화 생물학자들과 진화 심리학자들이 밈 이론과 집단 선택을 못마땅하게 생각한다.

 

나는 집단 선택에 대한 거대한 프로젝트에 착수했다. 집단 선택의 문제점에 대해서는 그 프로젝트에서 상세히 다룰 생각이다.

 

집단 선택 탐험: 001. 여행을 시작하며

http://cafe.daum.net/Psychoanalyse/KsMc/1

 

집단 선택 탐험: 002. Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans

http://cafe.daum.net/Psychoanalyse/KsMc/2

 

집단 선택 탐험: 003. Mathematical Models of Social Evolution

http://cafe.daum.net/Psychoanalyse/KsMc/3

 

 

 

하이에크의 이론에서 문화적 집단 선택은 큰 부분을 차지하고 있는 것 같다. 만약 문화적 집단 선택이 개념적으로 이론적으로 너무 지저분하거나 힘이 별로 없다면 하이에크의 이론 중 상당 부분이 무너지게 된다.

 

집단 선택에 대한 (아주 만족스럽지는 않은) Pinker의 비판과 그를 둘러싼 논쟁을 참조하라.

 

THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION (Steven Pinker)

Stewart Brand, Daniel Everett, David C. Queller, Daniel C. Dennett, Herbert Gintis, Harvey Whitehouse & Ryan McKay, Peter J. Richerson, Jerry Coyne, Michael Hochberg, Robert Boyd & Sarah Mathew, Max Krasnow & Andrew Delton, Nicolas Baumard, Jonathan Haidt, David Sloan Wilson, Michael E. Price, Joseph Henrich, Randolph M. Nesse, Richard Dawkins, Helena Cronin, John Tooby

http://edge.org/conversation/the-false-allure-of-group-selection