나는 적어도 (좁은 의미의) 진화 심리학계에서는 설계 논증이 매우 중시된다고 생각한다. 그리고 설계 논증을 매우 중시하는 진화 생물학자들이 꽤 많다는 것을 알고 있다.
그런데 어떤 분에 따르면 설계 논증을 적응의 증거로 제시하는 사람들은 자연 과학계에서 극소수파일뿐이라고 한다.
나와 그 분의 입씨름은 다음 글에서 볼 수 있다.
심리학에서 직관적 해석은 필요악이다
설계 논증에 대한 Tooby & Cosmides의 의견
이번에는 진화 생물학 교과서에서 설계 논증을 어떻게 대우하는지 살펴보자.
아래 구절을 볼 때 상당히 우대하는 것을 볼 수 있다. 이 교과서가 극소수의 의견을 무비판적으로 실은 것일까?
Because there are so many alternative hypotheses, many authors believe that we should not assume that a feature is an adaptation unless the evidence favors this interpretation (Williams 1966). This is not to deny that a great many of an organism’s features, perhaps the majority, are adaptations. Several methods are used to infer that a feature is an adaptation for some particular function. We shall note these methods only briefly and incompletely at this point, exemplifying them more extensively in later chapters.
Complexity. Even if we cannot immediately guess the function of a feature, we often suspect it has an adaptive function if it is complex, for complexity cannot evolve except by natural selection. For example, a peculiar, highly vascularized structure called a pecten projects in front of the retina in the eyes of birds (Figure 11.18). Only recently has evidence been developed to show that the pecten supplies oxygen to the retina, but it has always been assumed to play some important functional role because of its complexity and because it is ubiquitous among bird species.
Design. The function of a character is often inferred from its correspondence with the design an engineer might use to accomplish some task, or with the predictions of a model about its function. For instance, many plants that grow in hot environments have leaves that are finely divided into leaflets, or which tear along fracture lines (Figure 11.19). These features conform to a model in which the thin, hot “boundary layer” of air at the surface of a leaf is more readily dissipated by wind passing over a small than over a large surface, so that the leaf’s temperature is more effectively reduced. The field of functional morphology and ecological physiology are concerned with analyses of this kind.
(『Evolution』, Douglas J. Futuyma, 261~262쪽)
이 교과서의 저자는 어떤 사람일까?
Futuyma is the author of the widely used textbook Evolutionary Biology and Science on Trial: The Case for Evolution, an introduction to the creation-evolution controversy. His most recent textbook, Evolution, was published early in 2005 as an introductory textbook for undergraduates, with an updated 2nd edition released in 2009, and a 3rd edition in 2013. Futuyma is also the co-author with M. Slatkin of "Coevolution".
Futuyma has been president of the Society for the Study of Evolution, and of the American Society of Naturalists. He was the editor of Evolution and the Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics.
Futuyma는 그렇게 쉽게 무시할 수 있는 사람으로 보이지 않는다.